LUKBAN TO PEOPLE OF LEYTE, AUGUST 3, 1901
[Proclamation by General Lukban, published in "El Noticiero de Manila,"
November 20th, 1901. P.I.R., 502.5 . ]
SAMAR, August 3, 1901.
To the people of Leyte:
The Commander of your province having surrendered to the enemy,
though without arms because of the unwillingness of the worthy soldiers
to obey his orders, and in view of the solicitude of these soldiers and a
great number of the inhabitants that I shall agaln assume command of
the province as I had before, I do so today, and address you as follows:
History tells us that independence has always been costly, at all
times and all places; it is not strange then, that some individuals wearied
by the length of the struggle, surrender, submitting themselves to the
sovereignty of the invaders who by force aspire to be our masters. A
sad spectacle, indeed, for a people who on more than one occasion have
given unmistakable proofs of patriotism, integrity, valor and constancy in
But fortunately, fellow citizens, people of Leyte, many still remain
within our lines who ever show their worth, and feeling in their breasts
a patriotic ardor, do not weaken at sacrifice but remain steadfast in
their irreconcilable attitude, without being disheartened by the most
grievous calamities, defending our cause with the sublime heroism of the
convinced and with the indominatable tenacity of soldiers of liberty. There
still remain with us, I repeat many, very many, Filipinos, who, constant
and faithful in the discharge of their duties, have not allowed themselves
to be deceived by the enemy but continue working with greater fearlessness
and ardor than before, certain that the voice of justice and of reason
will be heard by the consciences of Ěthe North American imperialists
and that no distant day will arrive the moment, hope for all, when we
will again see our flag floating over all the towns of the Archipelago
kissed by liberty.
Even brothers, nationally, of those who wish to subjugate us, but
true sons of Washington and Jefferson, labor for the arrival of that moment;
they are not dismayed and cannot condemn, as, unfortunately, do
our servile fellow patriots, the continuations of the struggle on our part.
And there is, of a truth, nothing more natural than that we should
continue, no matter what obstacle we may encounter, and notwithstanding
the capture of him who was our Captain General, and the surrender of
various Generals. Such occurrences are but the misfortunes which occur
in our wars and it should in no way effect the attitude of those who
are truly worthy and patriotic. In the Transvaal War, Jouvert the
Commander in Chief, died, but the war did not cease on that account;
on the contrary, Bota immediately took command and continued operations
for the Boers more furiously, more actively, and more successfully, than
at the beginning. In Cuba, Maceo died and many other Commanders
were captured, still the revolution did not die; quite the contrary, it was
prosecuted more forcibly and vigorously, until after a short time thnt
island was declared independent.
If because of such disasters we were to falter in our work we would
be cursed by our successors, excerted, derided and scourned by the nations,
who then would surely see with pleasure that we were enchained,
even more than we were before, with chains of a true slavery to see if
with them we ended in awakening and succeeded in learning to appre.
ciate our rights, They would say to us, and with reason that we only
fought out of sympathy, or for fear of Sr. Aguinaldo and other persons
and not from a common ideal which is the liberty of our country. Before
they tell us that we shall show the world that the Filipino Army is so
organized that if a Commander dies or is captured another instantly
comes forward to take his place, that we do not fight on the suggestion
of other persons but because of our convictions, and that, in fine, we
are worthy of independence and universal respect because we know our
rights and how to die in their defense.
We remain then in the breach and continue the work of the revolution
as the last, the only, solution by which we may secure recognition
of our independence, as also our honor, our dignity and our patriotic
duties require us to do, because we have taken up arms against the
invading army in order not to humble nor submit ourselves to its sovereignty
after a little pressing as in a theatrical performance. No! we
have resorted to arms because Imperialism wished to trample upon our
rights and because it broke that alliance which united us according to
the proclamation of Aguinaldo when it still needed our aid and we Filipinos
indignant at this deception acted most naturally and logically
ill defending ourselves and demonstrating before the universe that we
throw off slavery and demand on just ground our national independence.
Dismiss personal resentments from your breasts if you have such
feelings, because all such conduce to nothing other than our own ruin
and slavery. Let us all unite in ono spirit, work with faith, without
fear of the dangers which may be conquered by constancy and labor;
let us disregard death, and. if by chance it comes to us in the noise
of battle, we know how to meet it with honor and thus we may be able
to say to our Country that on its fields we have shed our blood obeying
its commands. Let us recollect that for hearts that are great and
magnanimous, faithful to convictions, History, the Nation and the
Supreme Being have prepared garlands of unfading glory, while to
villains and cowards there is but hope of eternal dishonor and well
Equally desirous that the national defense may go with glorious
and triumphant march throughout the territory of my jurisdiction without
being hindered by difficulties nor stained by stigma under this date.
I order and command:
That there will be shot to death with musketry:
1. Any soldier or civilian who does not respect the life and interests
of all foreigners who do not bear arms in support of the enemy
but keep themselves neutral, as well as all Filipinos under similar
2. He who violates a woman or enters by force into the house of
any citizens whatever may be his nationality.
3. He who mal-treats prisoners of war or insults the person or
nation of the same, and he who even though it may be in the heat of
combat does not respect the life of an enemy when the latter has thrown
down his arms.
4. He who serves as a spy of the enemy or furnishes information
of whatever character regarding the position of the Filipino forces.
5. He who robs or loots be he author or accomplice in whatever
class of brigandage or outlawry, and he who collects contributions of
war without express authorization from the appointed Military Commander
or these Headquarters.
6. He who destroys or damages the crops or fields or takes the
cattle of neutral citizens.
7. The Filipino who does not engage in agriculture, such as the
cultivation of palay and other products, or to the occupation from which
he may best derive a livelihood and remain in tranquility of mind.
8. He who interferes with or opens correspondence addressed to
me officially or to those of my command without being duly authorized
by these Headquarters.
9. The soldier who refuses to furnish a neutral citizen, who needs
it, the means of security for the preservation of his life and interests.
These dispositions will be in force in all provinces in my command,
and local officials and military commanders of stations and guerrilla
bands are charged with seeing that they are exactly complied with,
sending those who disregard them to the military headquarters, by
which in turn they will be placed at the disposition of these Headquarters
for execution in conformity with law.
Given in the Encampment of Samar this 3rd day of August, 1901.
Politico-Military Commander in Chief.