Exhibit 1225.

[Original in Spanish. Unsigned copy. P.I.R., 468.4 ]


Circular of December 27, inserted in the official newspaper of the Visayas entitled "La Revolucion" dated January 5, 1899.

From this document it appears that the Regional Revolutionary Government of the Visayas was transformed into a Federal State, invoking the authority granted by the Honorable President Seņor Aguinaldo to the Commissioners, Seņores Pablo Araneta and Francisco Villanueva. It is signed in Jaro on December 27, 1898.

By a decree of the President of the Federal State of Visayas, dated January 5, 1899, the offices of President, Vice President and six councillors, representing the islands of Panay, Cebu, Leyte and Samar, are confirmed. The Spanish laws are declared in force, with the exception of those which will be rejected as opposed to the republican ideals. Other points of lesser importance are legislated for, and a capital of the Visayan Federation is designated. This document was published in the same newspaper, dated January 8, 1899. .

In the number of January 15 of said paper, appears the official correspondence between the American commander of the expeditionary forces to take Iloilo, General Miller, and the President of the Federal State, Sr. Lopez. In the answer of Sr. Lopez, the Supreme authority of the Government of Malolos is invoked.

In the number of January 17, laws are published regarding the formation of poll lists and personal taxes, distinct from our system.

In the number of January 19, other correspondence between the Americans and Visayans is published, wherein the authority of the Government of Malolos is again invoked by Sr. Lopez.

On January 22, at a mass meeting the resignation of Sr. Lopez is accepted and Sr. Melliza is named by acclamation, President of the Federal State.

In the number for the 26th, decrees of Sr. Melliza, on the polling of Chinese and industrial tax, together with tariffs.

MALOLOS [evidently end of January, 1899]

To the Citizen President Sr. Raymundo Melliza y Angulo.

DEAR SIR AND BELOVED BROTHER: - I write you to request of you your talented opinion and that of all the brothers who compose the Federal State of Visayas, of which you are the worthy President, upon the various questions which I shall set forth, all of them relating to that most important matter, our National Unity, the principal basis of our common claims to be recognized as a free and independent nation by foreign nations, and which is very necessary in order that our claim may be even considered by them.


Political unity is an indispensable condition for the end above mentioned, a unity, which does not exist since we here proclaimed unitarian Republic as a form of national government, not only for Luzon but for the entire Philippine Archipelago, and you proclaimed there in the Visayan group a Federal State, an essentially separatist form of government. We here legislate through the Congress subsequently putting into execution the laws passed by the Representatives, by means of a responsible Government, and you there legislate decrees. We are united as a force, as a revolution against every foreign yoke, as may be seen from the notable documents you addressed in reply to the attempts at usurpation of General Miller, but in fact, as a nation, we are not one, but divided.

We cannot, therefore, secure compliance with our demand for recognition, and this injures all in general in a most serious manner, especially in view of the attitude of invasion of the Americans, because, not probably but surely, if we were one politically speaking, the other powers could grant us this desired recognition, a step which might also avoid war between the Philippines and the United States of North America.


The official attitude observed by the Government which I, although unworthy, have the honor to preside over, against the intentions of the Americans to occupy the Visayan Islands or any other part of the Philippine Archipelago, is well known. There is a recent case and Iloilo played the principal role. My proclamations of January 5, last, says literally that I would begin hostilities the moment that the Americans should attempt to occupy that noble and heroic city by force.

As a consequence of these proclamations, seconded by you with admirable firmness and resolution, General Otis invited me to certain conferences, which we attended in the name of the entire Philippine Archipelago, directing our commissioners to sustain as a principal basis the recognition of the Philippine Republic as free and independent nation comprising the entire Philippine Archipelago.

But the Americans can claim that your separate federal form is a denial of the character [personalidad] we assume, an argument which would annul all of our efforts, because no answer could be made in the face of this evidence.

These conferences may, as your good judgment will show you, lead to our obtaining the recognition we demand, but with some conditions favoring the commerce and industry of America, an other important points, which will affect the entire Archipelago, including therefore, the Visayan Islands. In such event, you (plural) being separated from us politically and administratively, our honor itself would force us to confess to the United States that we lack your political representation for the purpose of obligating you (plural) and the Visayan Islands; this would cause a fiasco which would redound to the prejudice only of yourselves and us, that is to say to the great Filipino people.


The unity of the army is also a necessary condition for the juridical existence of a Nation. A well organized and well disciplined army provides for the defense of order and tranquillity in the interior and the security of the integrity of the territory; but on the contrary, a divided army with independent commanders, with different military laws, and with a disjointed organization, is to be feared at home. as an easy source of all kinds of disturbances, and is not feared abroad at an on account of the absence of ordinary coordination, in tactics as well as in provisions and war materiaL In this point I can state to you that as long as we are separated and divided from a military point of view also, we shall not secure the recognition of our Philippine Republic, nor you that of your Federal State.


As is the case with the unity of the army, it is also necessary for the political existence of modern nations, to have national credit, which is represented at home and abroad by the public treasury. It is necessary that citizens be subject to the same taxes, in order that they may all and each one contribute equitably to the expenses of the Nation. - The unity of contributing forces increases the credit of the State abroad. - And when this State is a new born one, as the Philippine nation, such requirements are even more necessary in order to guarantee public confidence, without which it is not possible to establish the national treasury upon a firm basis.

I remind you of those popular sayings which the Spaniards sounded in our ears: "Visayas alone or Luzon alone, cannot raise a good army nor a good squadron." And this is indeed so, as we are here having the greatest difficulty to raise money to meet the cost (of subsistence only!) of our army of more than 50,000 men.

Take into consideration that the enemy's strength here in Manila is about twenty thousand men, and in the garrison of Cavite about six thousand; this shows our need of maintaining the 50,000 men to with. stand at a given moment the invasion and attack of the enemy who is on land, and is not obliged to force a landing, as is so fortunately the case with you (plural), the Americans occupying the Bay only.

From all that has been said, I hope that you will think over the inadvisability of our political, military and administrative separation, and that it is urgently necessary to correct this disunion as soon as possible, under the constitutional system we have proclaimed here. I believe this to be so and I desire it, although only temporarily as long as our independence is threatened by the Americans and until we shall have secured the recognition of our Republic by most of the other foreign nations. Afterwards the Constitutional Assembly will decide our definite national form, whether a unitarian or federal Republic, I believe that either would serve to secure our public happiness.

The bases of the arrangement in my opinion are the following reserving your better judgment:

1. The proclamation there of the Republican Constitution, which is enclosed.

2. The creation of a superior council of delegates of this Government, under the presidency of yourself, representing the Departments of the Exterior, Interior, War and Navy, Treasury, Public Woks and Communications, Industry, Commerce and Agriculture, and public Instruction.

3. Full powers, very full powers to administer, but always under the laws emanating from here, excepting in the case of blockade, in which you will have discretional powers as the cases may require and the circumstances, as you have acted up to the present time.

4. Participation in Congress and in the Central Government here, and even in the judiciary, electing your deputies as soon as possible in aC'cordance with the rules of my decree of June 18, and sending here also recommendations for the last two departmept heads which have been reserved for you (plural) and the high office of Attorney General of the Philippine Republic, which has also been reserved. I also hope that you (plural) will send me, in the event that you accept the arrangament and the bases which I propose, the names of the Delegates who will constitute there the superior Council of Government of the Visayan Islands, for the purpose of draftmg theIr appointments.

Here, my honored and beloved brother, I will close, having b~n prompted solely by my heart and soul, which since August 31 1896 have been devoted completely to our beloved Philippines.

I am guided only by the interest I have in our closer union. You may so state to all our other brothers of that heroic city, to all of whom, and especially to yourself, your affectionate servant sends his respectful and fraternal greeting.

[NOTE, BY COMPILER: This letter was either prepared for the signature of E. Aguuinaldo or else a retained copy of a letter sent by him]